Hormonal Changes and Mood Disorders


When we think of mood swings, we often attribute them to situations or external factors. However, many aren’t aware that our internal chemistry, particularly hormonal changes, plays a significant role in our emotional well-being. Here’s a look into how hormonal fluctuations can affect our mood and lead to disorders.

Understanding Hormones

Before diving deep, it’s important to have a basic understanding of hormones. These are chemical messengers produced by our endocrine glands, which travel through our bloodstream to regulate various body functions. Everything from metabolism to sleep to mood is controlled, to some extent, by hormones.

Key Hormones Affecting Mood

Estrogen and Progesterone 

These female sex hormones are mainly responsible for the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause. Fluctuations in their levels can affect mood. Many women experience mood swings, irritability, or feelings of sadness in the days before menstruation, a condition known as Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Moreover, the transitional phase of menopause can lead to mood disturbances, with 20% of women experiencing depression during this time[1].


Often associated with male traits and behaviors, testosterone does more than just influence muscle growth and libido. Low levels can lead to fatigue, depression, and irritability in men. Studies suggest that middle-aged men undergoing a “male menopause” or andropause might experience mood swings due to decreasing testosterone levels 2. 

Thyroid Hormones 

Produced by the thyroid gland, these hormones are crucial for our metabolic functions. An imbalance, be it hypo- or hyperthyroidism, can result in mood disorders. Hypothyroidism, in particular, has been linked to feelings of fatigue and depression.


Known as the “stress hormone”, cortisol is released during stressful situations. Chronically elevated cortisol levels can lead to anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders.

Mood Disorders: Beyond Temporary Mood Swings 

Hormonal changes don’t just cause temporary mood fluctuations. They can also lead to more serious mood disorders like:

Postpartum Depression  

After childbirth, rapid hormone changes, combined with the stresses of new parenthood, can result in postpartum depression. This goes beyond the “baby blues” and can lead to severe depression, affecting nearly 1 in 7 mothers[3].

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)  

An extreme form of PMS, PMDD is a severe mood disorder that affects a small percentage of women. Its symptoms are similar to PMS but are intense enough to interfere with daily life.

Finding Balance 

If you suspect that hormonal changes are affecting your mood:

Consult a Medical Professional   

Blood tests can detect hormone imbalances. Once diagnosed, treatments like hormone replacement therapy can be considered.

Lifestyle Adjustments  

Eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, managing stress, and getting enough sleep can help regulate hormone levels and improve mood.


Hormonal changes play a pivotal role in determining our mood. By understanding this connection, seeking timely interventions, and making lifestyle adjustments, we can better navigate the ebb and flow of our emotional tides.


[1]: Harvard Medical School, “Menopause and mood disorders”.  

[2]: Mayo Clinic, “Testosterone therapy: Potential benefits and risks as you age”.  

[3]: American Psychological Association, “Postpartum depression”. 

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